21.1 Acidity of the Alpha Hydrogen

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    Thermodynamic vs Kinetic Enolate

    thermodynamic vs kinetic enolate

    Relative Acidities of Carbonyl Compounds

    acidity of alpha hydrogen aldehyde
    acidity of alpha hydrogen ketone
    acidity of alpha hydrogen ester
    acidity of alpha hydrogen beta diketone

    LDA (Lithium Diisopropyl Amide)

    -a strong base used to form enolate ions ~100%
    -prefers the less substituted enolate at low temperatures (kinetic enolate)

    lda enolate

    Keto-Enol Tautomerism

    keto-enol tautomerism