3.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases

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Acid and Base Definitions

ACID H+ donor e- acceptor
BASE H+ acceptor e- donor
bronsted acids and bronsted bases

Characteristics of Acids and Bases

↑Ka = stronger acid, ↑Kb = stronger base

↓pKa = stronger acid, ↓pKb = stronger base

The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base.

The more stable the base, the weaker the base.

Ka expression
~ -7 sulfonic acid
~ 4-5 carboxylic acid
~ 10 phenol
~ 10-11 quaternary amine
15.7 water
~ 16 alcohol
~ 26 terminal alkyne
~ 38 ammonia

The Weaker Acid and Base are Favored at Equilibrium.

acid base equilibrium favors products
acid base equilibrium favors reactants