3.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases

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    Acid and Base Definitions

    ACID H+ donor e- acceptor
    BASE H+ acceptor e- donor
    bronsted acids and bronsted bases

    Characteristics of Acids and Bases

    ↑Ka = stronger acid, ↑Kb = stronger base

    ↓pKa = stronger acid, ↓pKb = stronger base

    The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base.

    The more stable the base, the weaker the base.

    Ka expression

    pKas of Common Functional Groups

    pKa sulfonic acid ~ -7 sulfonic acid
    pKa carboxylic acid ~ 4-5 carboxylic acid
    pKa phenol ~ 10 phenol
    pKa quaternary amine ~ 10-11 quaternary amine
    pKa H2O 15.7 water
    pKa alcohol ~ 16 alcohol
    ~ 26 terminal alkyne
    pKa ammonia ~ 38 ammonia

    The Weaker Acid and Base are Favored at Equilibrium

    acid base equilibrium favors products
    acid base equilibrium favors reactants