6.2 Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant

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    Entropy (S)

    -related to the amount of ‘disorder’ in a system

    -related to the number of states (microstates) in which a system can exist

    2nd Law of Thermodynamics: For a spontaneous process, ΔSuniverse > 0.

    factors affecting entropy

    Gibbs Free Energy (G)

    -Energy available to do work

    - Spontaneous Exergonic
    + Nonspontaneous Endergonic

    ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

    ΔHo ΔSo -TΔSo
    - + - Spontaneous at all temperatures
    + - + Nonspontaneous at all temperatures
    - - + Spontaneous at low temperatures
    + + - Spontaneous at high temperatures

    ΔGo = -RTlnKeq

    ΔGo and Keq
    ΔGo < 0 Keq > 1
    ΔGo > 0 Keq < 1