3.2 Ranking Acids and Bases

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    Conjugate Acid / Conjugate Base Pairs

    -The stronger the acid the weaker the conjugate base.
    -A more stable base is a weaker base and has a stronger conjugate acid.
    -A more stable base generally has lower energy electrons.

    Rules for Ranking Acids and Bases (ARIO)

    Factors Affecting Stability of the Conjugate Base
    Charge -A negative charge raises the energy of electrons (stronger base).
    -A positive charge lowers the energy of electrons (weaker base).
    Atom The larger the basic atom in a group the more stable the base (weaker base).
    The more electronegative the basic atom in a period, the more stable the base (weaker base).
    Resonance Delocalization lowers the energy of electrons (weaker base).
    Induction LondonElectron withdrawing groups (i.e. electronegative atoms) near the basic atom stabilize the base (weaker base).
    Orbitals Greater s-character in hybrid orbitals results in lower energy (greater stability) of a base.
    Trend in stability: sp > sp2 > sp3

    Charge

    affect of charge on acidity basicity

    Atom

    ranking acids and bases atom rule
    atom rule ranking acids and bases

    Resonance

    resonance effects ranking acids and bases

    Induction

    -The closer the electron-withdrawing group the more stable the base (weaker base)
    -The more electronegative the group the more stable the base (weaker base)

    inductive effects ranking acids and bases

    Orbitals (i.e. Hybridization)

    orbitals 1

    Ranking Acids (Examples)

    orbitals 2