4.2 Types of Chemical Reactions

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Combination Two (or more) substances combine to form a new substance.
4Na(s) + O2(g) → 2Na2O(s)
Decomposition One substance is converted into 2 or more substances.
CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Combustion Combustion of a hydrocarbon specifically always involves a reaction with O2 to produce CO2 and H2O. Combustion reactions are a type of redox reaction.
CH4(g) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(g)
(a.k.a. Redox)
A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one species (oxidized) to another species (reduced). The evidence that a redox reaction has occurred is changes in oxidation states (charges).
2H2O(l) → 2H2(g) + O2(g)
Single Replacement An element reacts with an ionic compound or acid to replace an element in the compound.
Zn(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) → Cu(s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq)
Double Replacement Two aqueous ionic compounds (and/or acids) are mixed with cations and anions trading partners to form two new ionic compounds (and/or acids).
Hg(NO3)2 (aq) + (NH4)2S(aq) → HgS(s) + 2NH4NO3(aq)