12.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases

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Chad's High School Chemistry Master Course

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ARRHENIUS BRONSTED-LOWRY PROPERTIES
ACID H+ donor in H2O
(increases [H3O+])
H+ donor Turn litmus red, sour
BASE OH- donor in H2O
(increases [OH-])
H+ acceptor Turn litmus blue, bitter, slippery

Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions

acid-base neutralization reaction 01

Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases may or may not form water. (Identify conjugate acid/base pairs.)

acid-base neutralization reaction 02
acid-base neutralization reaction 03

Amphiprotic – a substance that can act as either a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base (ex. HSO4-, H2O, HCO3-)

Identify the conjugate acid of HCO3-.

Identify the conjugate base of HCO3-.

STRONG ACIDS STRONG BASES
HI
HBr
HCl
H2SO4
HNO3
HClO4
HClO3
LiOH
NaOH
KOH
RbOH
CsOH
Ba(OH)2
Sr(OH)2
Ca(OH)2
Mg(OH)2

Strong acids and bases dissociate/ionize/hydrolyze completely in water. Any acid that is not strong is weak by default (ex. HF, HNO2, HCN, etc.). Weak bases include NH3.