8.1 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding

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    Ionic vs Covalent vs Metallic Bonding

    BONDING
    IONIC COVALENT METALLIC
    Metal / Nonmetal
    Transfer of e-
    Δ Electronegativity > 1.7
    Nonmetal / Nonmetal
    Sharing of e-
    Δ Electronegativity < 1.7
    Metal / Metal
    “Sea of e-
     
    PROPERTIES OF TYPES OF COMPOUNDS/SUBSTANCES
    IONIC MOLECULAR NETWORK COVALENT METALLIC
    High m.p and b.p.
    Brittle
    Lattice Energy α q1q2/r
     
     
    Lower m.p. and b.p.
     
     
     
     
    High m.p. and b.p.
    Ex. C(diamond)
    SiO2
     
     
    Conduct electricity
    Conduct heat
    Luster
    Malleable
    Ductile
    electronegativity trend periodic table

    Ionic Bonding

    -Transfer of electrons between elements with significant differences in electronegativity
         -Element with low ionization energy loses electron(s) (metal)
         -Element with high electron affinity gains electron(s) (nonmetal)
    -Usually between a metal and a nonmetal (but don’t forget about polyatomic ions)

    Lattice Energy

    -Energy required to separate an ionic compound into gaseous ions
    -Serves as a measure of the strength of the ionic bonds

     

    NaCl(s) → Na+(g) + Cl-(g)           ΔE = 787kJ/mol

    RANKING LATTICE ENERGIES
    1. Higher for greater charges
    2. Higher for smaller ions

    Which in each pair has a higher lattice energy?

    NaF vs MgO                         MgO vs CaS

    Covalent Bonding

    COVALENT BONDING
    -Sharing of electrons between atoms with an electronegativity difference <1.7 (typically 2 nonmetals)
    Nonpolar (or Pure) Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bond
    Δ Electronegativity <0.5 Δ Electronegativity 0.5 < x < 1.7
    Generally, between two identical atoms or C-H Have partial ionic character