1.1 Matter and Change

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    Matter

    Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

    Atoms are the basic unit of matter.

    Chemical vs Physical Change/Property

    Chemical Change/Property Physical Change/Property
    Chemical change - a change that involves the conversion of one or more substances into different substances Physical change - a change in which no substances are converted into different substances
    Chemical Change
    Burning
    Oxidation
    (nail rusting)
    Chemical Properties
    Flammability
    Oxidizability
    Physical Changes
    Phase Change (Melting, Boiling, freezing, etc.)
    Salt dissolving in H2O
    Physical Properties
    Shape, color, size
    Phase of State

    Element vs Compound

    Elements Compounds
    Elements - a substance that can’t be broken down into a simpler substance Compounds - a substance composed of more than one element
    Examples
    Na, Si, H2, S8

    Diatomics - H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2,
    Examples
    CO2, NaCl, NaHCO3

    Pure Substance vs Mixture

    Pure Substance Mixtures
    Pure Substances - Any single element OR any single compound Mixtures - More than one substance (element AND/OR compound)
    Examples
    O2 gas (a single element)
    H2O (a single compound)
    Examples
    Air (mixture of N2, O2, CO2, and others)
    Salt water (mixture of NaCl and H2O)

    Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous

    Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture
    Homogeneous Mixture - A mixture with uniform composition Heterogeneous Mixture - A mixture lacking uniform composition
    Examples
    Milk
    Salt water (no excess on bottom)
    Examples
    Vinegar/oil salad dressing
    Paint
    Salt water (with excess sitting on the bottom)

    Intensive vs Extensive

    Intensive Property Extensive Property
    Intensive Property - A property independent of sample size Extensive Property - A property dependent upon sample size
    Examples
    Melting point
    Boiling point
    Density
    Examples
    Mass
    Volume