14.4 Standing Waves

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Standing Waves

STANDING WAVES
String Fixed at Both Ends
or
Pipe Open at Both Ends
λn = 2L / n          n = 1,2,3 ...

n = 1 is the first harmonic or fundamental frequency.
String Fixed at One End
or
Pipe Open at One End
λn = 4L / n          n = 1,3,5 ...

n = 1 is the first harmonic or fundamental frequency.