13.1 Solution Formation and Solubility

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    Solution Process

    1) Separation of solute particles (breaking attractive forces -- endothermic)
    2) Separation of solvent particles (breaking attractive forces -- endothermic)
    3) Attractive forces formed between solute and solvent particles (exothermic)

    solution process

    Solubility

    Solubility - the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent
    “Like dissolves like” in terms of polarity

    To be soluble the attractive forces formed between solute and solvent have to be comparable to those broken in the solute and solvent.

     

    Entropy of Mixing – mixing typically involves an increase in entropy

     

    Miscible – when two liquids mix in all proportions
    Immiscible – when two liquids don’t dissolve in one another; they generally form separate layers of liquid

     

    Saturated – when the maximum amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent
    Unsaturated – when less than the maximum amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent
    Supersaturated – when more than the maximum amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent

     

    Colloid – A homogeneous suspension of particles composed of many atoms/molecules that doesn’t settle out of solution due to gravity. It can’t be separated by filtration or centrifugation.

    Factors Affecting Solubility |
    Solubility of Gases

    1) Gases are more soluble at lower temperatures.

    2) Gases are more soluble at higher pressures.

    Henry's Law

    henrys law
    solubilities of gases in h20

    What is the solubility of O2 in water at 25°C at sea level? (PO2 = 0.21atm, KH = 1.3×10-3M/atm at 25°C)

    Solubility of Ionic Compounds

    Most ionic compounds (salts) are more soluble at higher temperatures.

    solubilities of salts in h20