9.2 Hybridization

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Video Transcript
In this lesson you will learn:

-What hybrid orbitals are and the types of hybridization (sp, sp2, sp3 hybridization, etc.)

-How to identify an atom's hybridization from the Lewis structure

-The relationship between an atom's hybridization and its bond angles


Electron Domains
2 Linear 180o sp
3 Trigonal Planar 120o sp2
4 Tetrahedral 109.5o sp3
5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 90o, 120o, 180o sp3d
6 Octahedral 90o, 180o sp3d2

Determining Hybridization

The hybridization and bond angles of an atom can be determined from the number of electron domains surrounding the atom.  An electron domain is either an atom it is bonded to (it does not matter whether it is a single, double, or triple bond; it counts as one electron domain) or a non-bonding pair ("lone pair") of electrons.

sp2 hybridization

In the molecule above the carbon atom has 3 electron domains as it is bonded to 3 other atoms but has no lone pairs.  Therefore, it is sp2 hybridized and has bond angles of 120o.  Incidentally, the oxygen atom also has 3 electrons domains (bonded to 1 atom and has 2 lone pairs) and is also sp2 hybridized.