5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and Phase Changes

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isomers types
Chiral compounds have nonsuperimposable (non-identical) mirror images called enantiomers. Enantiomers have many of the same physical properties: b.p., m.p., polarity, etc.
Chiral compounds are said to be optically active as they rotate plane-polarized light.
A racemic mixture is a 50/50 mixture of enantiomers and is optically inactive.
Achiral compounds are superimposable (identical) with their mirror images.
Achiral compounds are optically inactive as they do not rotate plane-polarized light.
Meso compounds are achiral but have chiral centers.
Diastereomers are nonsuperimposable (non-identical) non-mirror images.
Diastereomers typically have different physical properties: b.p., m.p., polarity, etc.

Chiral Centers and Chirality

Chiral centers are tetrahedral atoms (sp3 hybridized) with four different substituents.
-(a.k.a. chirality centers, asymmetric centers, stereogenic centers)

chiral centers 1
chiral centers 2