3.2 Mass Percents and Empirical and Molecular Formulas

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-The stronger the acid the weaker the conjugate base and vice-versa.
-A more stable base is a weaker base and has a stronger conjugate acid.
-A more stable base generally has lower energy electrons.

Factors Affecting Stability of the Conjugate Base
Charge -A negative charge raises the energy of electrons (stronger base).
-A positive charge lowers the energy of electrons (weaker base).
Atom The larger the basic atom in a group the more stable the base (weaker base).
The more electronegative the basic atom in a period, the more stable the base (weaker base).
Resonance Delocalization lowers the energy of electrons (weaker base).
Induction Electron withdrawing groups (i.e. electronegative atoms) near the basic atom stabilize the base (weaker base).
Orbitals Greater s-character in hybrid orbitals results in lower energy (greater stability) of a base.
Trend in stability: sp > sp2 > sp3

Charge

increasing acidity basicity

Atom

atom 1
atom 2

Resonance

resonance effects ranking acids and bases

Induction

-the closer the electron-withdrawing group the more stable the base (weaker base)
-the more electronegative the group the more stable the base (weaker base)

inductive effects ranking acids and bases

Orbitals

orbitals 1
orbitals 2