21.3 Isomers in Coordination Chemistry
|STRUCTURAL ISOMERS-have a different bond connectivity|
|LINKAGE ISOMERS||COORDINATION SPHERE ISOMERS|
|-have the same ligand linked through different atoms||-difference in ions/water molecules that are in/out of the coordination sphere (acting as ligands)|
|STEREOISOMERS-same bond connectivity but different 3D arrangement of atoms|
|GEOMETRIC ISOMERS (CIS/TRANS)||OPTICAL ISOMERS|
|-cis when 2 groups are 90° apart-trans when 2 groups are 180° apartPossible for three complexes:||-non-superimposable mirror images (like your hands)Possible for three complexes:|
Optical Isomers Vocabulary
A compound with optical isomers is said to be chiral and the two forms are called enantiomers.
Chiral compounds are optically active (they rotate plane polarized light).
A racemic mixture is a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers and thus isn’t optically active.