21.1 Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

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    Coordination Complexes (Metal Complexes)

    - A coordination complex has a central metal ion (Lewis acid) surrounded by ligands (Lewis bases).
    - The bond between the metal ion and ligand is called a coordinate covalent bond.
    - A ligand must have an unshared pair of electrons that will be used to form the coordinate covalent bond.
         Coordination Sphere – composed of only the ligands bonded to the central metal ion directly
         Coordination Number - number of atoms (not ligands) bound to the central metal ion

    Coordination Number Geometry Hybridization
    2 Linear sp
    4 Tetrahedral sp3
    4 Square Planar dsp2
    6 Octahedral d2sp3 or sp3d2
    coordination sphere 01

    1. If excess AgNO3 is reacted with 1 mole of [Fe(H2O)5Cl]Cl2, how many moles of AgCl will be produced?

    - Polydentate ligands bond to a central metal ion more than once.
    - Polydentate ligands are also called chelating agents.

    polydentate ligand 01
    Ligand Dentate Name Name in complexes
    H2O mono water aqua
    NH3 mono ammonia ammine
    CO mono carbon monoxide carbonyl
    F- mono fluoride ion fluoro
    Cl- mono chloride ion chloro
    Br- mono bromide ion bromo
    I- mono iodide ion iodo
    OH- mono hydroxide ion hydroxo
    O2- mono oxide ion oxo
    CN- mono cyanide ion cyano
    SCN- mono thiocyanate ion (via S) thiocyanato
    NCS- mono thiocyanate ion (via N) isothiocyanato
    common lingands 01 bi Ethylenediamine
    common lingands 02 bi o-phenanthroline
    common lingands 03 bi oxalate ion
    common lingands 04 bi carbonate ion carbonato
    common lingands 05 tri diethylenetriamine
    common lingands 06 hexa ethylenediaminetetraacetic
    acid (EDTA)